Requirements of Sun Shade:
- Any building structure used by the industry to store raw materials or for manufacturing products of the industry is known as industrial buildings.
- Industrial buildings can be categorised as normal type industrial building & special type industrial buildings.
- Normal type industrial buildings are shed type buildings with simple roof strutcure on open frames.
- These buildings are used for workshop,warehouse etc.
- Sun shades in the oil & gas industries to be provided to cover the main equipments like compressor,turbines and pumps etc.
- These shades require large and clear areas unobstructed by the columns.
- The sun shades are constructed with adequate headroom for the use of an overhead travelling crane.
- As sun shades are specifically designed to protect equipment from solar radiation,their sizes are directly related to the angle of the sun during the most intence period of this solar radiation.
- Accordingly, the equipment that needs to be shaded shall be within the boundaries and angles shown in Fig. 1 below.
Types of sun shade:
Following are the different type of sun shade
- single side sloping roof
- double side sloping roof
- shed with roof truss
- shed with moment frames or open frames
- fully cladded shed
- partially cladded shed
- shed with overhead electric operated travelling crane(EOT)
- shed with monorail
- pre fabricated shed
Basic componenets of sun shade:
Following are the main elements of sun shade
- foundation for shed columns
- base plate & anchor bolts
- tie beams
- moment resisting frames or portals
- side runners
- vertical bracing system
- plan bracing system
Loads for sun shade design:
Following are the main loads to be considered for sun shade design
- dead load
- live load
- crane loads
- wind load on roof
- wind load on side walls & gable walls
- earthquake loads
- snow load on roof
- sand accumulation on roof
- heavy lighting fixture loads
Analysis of sun shade:
- Sun shade analysis can be done manually as well as with help of software also.
- For manual analysis any one portal to be considered and loads will apply on 2d frame and different forces in columns ,beams and portal or truss members can be found out.
- In recent period, different softwares are available for analysis & design of 3d geometry
- Sun shade geometry can be easily modelled in staad
- After geometry finalisation, different loads & load combination to be applied on sun shade model in staad it self.
- After completing load combination , run the analysis package in staad,and all forces and reactions will be generated.
Design of sun shade:
Different codes for designing structural steel shade
- British code : BS – 5950
- American code : AISC – allowable stress design (ASD); AISC – load resisting factor design (LRFD)
- Eurocode : 3
- DEP 34.00.01.30 : structural design & engineering
For performing sun shade design operation in STAAD following are the minimum parameter that shall be considered
- FYLD– YIELD STRENGTH OF STEEL
- BEAM– FOR DESIGN THE MEMBER AT EVERY 1/12TH SECTION LOCATION
- LY & LZ – LENGTH IN LOCAL Y & Z AXIS FOR SLENDERNESS CHECK
- MAIN– CHECKING OF SLENDERNESS RATIO.
- UNL / UNT / UNB – UNSUPPORTED LENGTH
- RATIO– PERMISSIBLE RATIO OF ACTUAL LOAD TO SECTION CAPACITY.
- TRACK– FOR PRINTING THE DESIGN OUTPUT
- DFF, DJ1 & DJ2– FOR PERFORMING DEFLECTION CHECKS.
- CHECK CODE – FOR PERFORMING DESIGN OPERATION AS PER SELECTED CODE.
Sun shade site Photos: