The main purpose of this presentation is to discuss the basic aspects related to fixing of appropriate location for the piping design of static equipments. Static equipments generally found in process plants are as follows:
- Fired Heaters
- Air-cooled Heat Exchangers
Fixing Location of Fired Heaters (Fig. 1):
- Fired heater shall be located at upwind direction or at least cross wind from sources of hydrocarbon leaks.
- Minimum distance is required between fired heater and fractionating tower and reactor.
- Provide tube removal / maintenance space within battery limits. Crane access may be necessary, especially for vertical tubes.
- Provide space for removal / maintenance of burners, soot blowers, convection sections.
- Knockout drums for fuel gas supply to fired heaters shall be located as close as possible.
Fixing Location of Reactors (Fig. 2):
- Location shall be as close as possible to Fired Heaters so that piping is short and simple.
- Reactors shall be located for ease of access during catalyst unloading and loading operations.
- Space shall be allowed for cranes and storage of spent and new catalyst.
- Separate structure with platform if required for catalyst loading and unloading.
- Space shall be allowed for TW- removal & maintenance.
Fixing Location of Exchangers:
- Locate exchangers at grade unless and elevated location is required by the
- Shell and tube exchangers shall be located with channel end away from pipe ways to facilitate tube bundle removal.
- For exchangers under drums or unit structures, where ever possible the channel end shall be clear of overhead structures for handling of channel end by mobile equipment.
- Heat exchangers containing flammable liquids above 260 C, or their auto-ignition temperature (if lower), shall not be located beneath other equipment.
- Exchangers shall be located close to the associated equipment and pipe rack, so that piping is short, but adequate flexibility.
Fixing Location of Air cooled -Exchangers (Fig. 3):
- Process equipment shall not be located above or below air cooled heat exchangers.
- Locate above the unit pipe rack.
- Can’t locate where the discharge air from one exchanger can become the incoming air to another exchanger.
- Provide crane access to air-cooled heat exchangers for maintenance.
- The distance between air condenser outlet and the receiver shall be minimized.
Fixing Location of Drums:
- Drums are located within a process unit either adjacent to related equipment or as a standalone operation
- Should be positioned to facilitate an orderly and economic piping interconnection.
- Generally drums are located on either side of a central pipe rack serviced by auxiliary road for maintenance access
- Drums are generally located at all levels of enclosed or open-sided structures.